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Minecraft Guide, Part 2: Mining

Be sure to follow all of these rules carefully!
Mining requires more than just a pickaxe and some food. It requires knowledge as well!

What is the most common ore in the game, found at all layers?

What is the rarest ore?

What is the cheapest pickaxe that can mine all ore types?

Beware the mineshafts, for there be a mystical creature that gives ye the effect of -

One even worse, but that much rarer, is the maleficent -

Don't forget the bucket of -

Monsters can only spawn in light levels of ___ or less.

Last Question: What is the most prized gem found from mining?